The study of biological systems is based on observation of real living organisms. The study of biological systems is based on observations of the physiology of living organisms. Physiological study refers to the study of physical changes in living systems as a result of metabolic activities and their interactions. It is also called the study of life processes.
Biological activity of living organisms consists of chemical reactions of living cells with external stimuli. The internal biological processes that make living cells function include respiration, regulation of internal metabolism and hormone regulation. Internal biological processes include DNA transcription, protein synthesis and maintenance, and development. Physiological processes also include elimination of waste products and allocation of nutrients to cell needs.
Physiological processes and their interactions in living organisms are the main focus of physiology. Physiological processes are also known as the functions of the living organisms. A living thing is categorized into two types namely simple and complex. A simple living organism is classified as a single-celled organism that is composed of a nucleus, chloroplasts (which are made up of a chlorophyll), and a mitochondria (which are responsible for respiration). A complex living organism is comprised of multicellular organisms that are composed of several cells and are interrelated by a network of intercellular and intracellular processes.
Understanding the basic cell functions of living things is important in order to understand how they work. Basic cells have a nucleus that is surrounded by a membrane, a chloroplast (which is composed of chloroplasts and a mitochondria), and a complex matrix.
Cells differ in their physiology. Many living things have one or more specialized cells that perform specific roles, while other living things have multiple specialized cells performing multiple roles. Examples of these cells are the lymphocytes, which are responsible for lymphatic circulation; bone marrow, which produces red blood cells; the lymphoid cells that are responsible for blood cell maintenance; and the white blood cells that provide blood cells to the bone marrow. There are also specialized cells that perform the primary function of an organ, such as the lymph nodes in the lungs, kidneys and liver, pancretegna for the liver and bile, and kidney filtering of bile salts, etc. These organs have different types of tissues and they are separated from one another through the bloodstream.
The role that cells play in the body can be classified into three types namely primary, secondary, tertiary and derivative. Primary cells are those that have been designed for a primary function. Secondary cells, on the other hand, are those that have been specially designed for a secondary function.
The direct relationship between a cell and its environment can be classified into two types. First, the relationship between a cell and its environment can be described as a feedback or reciprocal relationship. In the case of feedback, the relationship between an organism and its environment occurs as a response of the cell to its surroundings. Second, the relationship between a cell and its environment occurs as a direct response of the cell to the environment.
Cells have a different metabolic rate than animals and are highly sensitive to external factors. It is for this reason that cells can die after a certain amount of time. The metabolism of a cell is also called the rate at which it oxidizes compounds or converts energy into usable chemical bonds. Some of the metabolic reactions that are involved in metabolism include the production of ATP and the breakdown of glucose or glycogen. These metabolic activities are called chemical reactions and each of them has a corresponding energy release.
Energy is required by cells to make energy. Energy is also needed to repair damage to tissues, synthesize proteins, and transport nutrients to and from tissues. Energy also is used to change chemical bonds, and create energy in other parts of the cell.
All cells are not created equal. There are certain types of cells that perform specific functions while others do not.