Prolog programming is a programming language typically associated with formal linguistic reasoning and artificial intelligence. It was first used at the University of Geneva in Switzerland and was later developed by Robert von Linnen, who was also responsible for creating LISP (a language that is still widely used in the Linguistics department of the University of California Santa Barbara).
In fact, Prolog programming may be more closely related to LISP than any other programming language. LISP programmers use Prolog, an extension of the language, to write programs for applications such as databases, scientific research, and text processing. They also use the language in order to create formal logic programs that are used in the philosophy department of their university.
In essence, Prolog programming is used in a similar way to other programming languages. While the grammar may be different and there may be other differences, the syntax, the formal syntax and the basic rules of Prolog will remain the same no matter what language it is being used in.
In essence, Prolog programs use the following rules to create formal sentences: the verb always precedes the subject (unless it’s the first time the verb is used as an object), the sentence must be grammatically complete and each of its parts must fit together in a well-formed logical structure, the subject of a sentence must be either definite or indefinite, the subject of a sentence must always be a natural number and the conclusion of the sentence must either be a quantifier or a conjunction. As long as the grammar and syntactic rules are followed, a Prolog program can generate a complete and accurate mathematical description of whatever it is that it is trying to compute.
One of the primary purposes of Prolog programming is to provide a mathematical tool to be used in the philosophy department of any university or college. Since Prolog programming is primarily a formal logic language, the logic code can be used for various applications such as verification, induction and proof techniques. As the program matures, its power will increase and it may be used to solve some of the problems that were once thought impossible to solve in a traditional formal logic programming language.
There is no shortage of formal languages and language used in computer science departments today. However, Prolog programming provides a simple, yet powerful approach for students who need the same level of reasoning abilities that are needed in formal mathematical reasoning. Because of its simplicity and ease of use, Prolog is ideal for those who are just learning formal logic but who do not have the background in formal mathematical reasoning.
Another advantage of using Prolog in computer science departments is that the language is free. As long as there are no licensing restrictions, anyone can take courses in Prolog programming and use the language for whatever purpose they wish. Thus, they do not have to worry about buying a specialized book, nor having to pay for classes on formal logic and mathematical reasoning, which many people find difficult to learn. Prolog programming is available to anyone with access to the internet who wishes to learn it and to those with no prior knowledge of formal logic who need to learn it.